The use of doping can lead to:
- Health consequences, which may be manifested in behavioural changes, substance addiction and chronic illnesses;
- Psychological consequences such as depression, feelings of guilt, identity crisis;
- Economic consequences such as withdrawal of prize money, loss of contracts and sponsors;
- Social consequences such as loss of credibility and respect from family, friends, team members, to public isolation from sports.
From a sport’s perspective, anti-doping rule violations may include:
- Disqualification of results obtained in a competition, including the loss of medals or trophies;
- Disqualification up to four years or even a life ban from any sport activity (competitions and training);
- Public disclosure of the violation committed.
The consequences of doping are not limited to sport sanctions, but may include, on national territory, also criminal offences.